We have the fossils, we win.
What is depicted is of course Tiktaalik, a great example of the explanatory and predictive power of the theory of evolution. Given the evidence available prior to the discovery of Tiktaalik, three predictions could be made: 1) something along the lines of what Tiktaalik turned out to be should have existed, and perhaps a fossil of such a thing might be found, 2) the approximate location one might expect to find such a fossil, and 3) the age of the rocks that such a fossil should be found in. With these predictions in hand, it only took five years of digging to find Tiktaalik.
Talk Origins is a great site to find information about evolution.
Some particular favorite parts of mine are:
- Transitional Vertebrate Fossils FAQ (although I believe Dana Hunter linked to a more recent list (2001, still predating the discovery of Tiktaalik) by the same author, Kathleen Hunt: Transitional Vertebrate Fossils FAQ)
- Prominent Hominid Fossils
- Fossil Hominids: The Evidence for Human Evolution
- 29+ Evidences for Macroevolution: The Scientific Case for Common Descent”
- the “Must Read” section
I also highly recommend the book
Your Inner Fish A Journey into the 3.5 Billion Year History of the Human Body, by Neil Shubin.